Antarctica is the landmass located on the southern most pole of the earth. It is considered a continent.
Countries from all over the world undertake research in Antarctica, but Antarctica is not ‘owned’ by any one nation.
In 1959 a series of 12 nations agreed to “The Antarctic Treaty” which outlined international rules for the use of Antarctica. The number of country parties in the treaty has since grown to 54.
The Treaty outlined multiple acts to be adhered to by all countries, including:
Act 1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only
Act 2. Freedom for scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end shall continue.
Act 3. Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.
Countries with territorial claims over portions of Antarctica include: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and Britain.
The following is a list of the square kilometres ( ㎢ ) claimed as territory by each nation:
Australian Territory size: 5,896,500 ㎢
Norway Territory size: 2,700,154 ㎢
British Territory size: 1,709,400㎢
Argentina Territory size: 1,461,597 ㎢
Chile Territory size: 1,2590,257 ㎢
New Zealand: 450,000 ㎢
France: 432,000 ㎢
This does not mean that other nations cannot conduct scientific research on Antarctica.
There are research facilities on Antarctica from Australia, New Zealand, Britain, Russia, India, China, the USA, Romania, France and Italy.
A collaborative scientific effort remains in place in Antarctica to this day, and continues to be a success in international efforts at multi-lateral cooperation
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